Backpack for harvesting electrical energy during walking and for minimizing shoulder strain
Patent 6982497 Issued on January 3, 2006. Estimated Expiration Date: March 17, 2024. Estimated Expiration Date is calculated based on simple USPTO term provisions. It does not account for terminal disclaimers, term adjustments, failure to pay maintenance fees, or other factors which might affect the term of a patent.
A suspended-load backpack designed to permit the load to move relative to the backpack frame during walking and running so that the large movements between the load and the frame of the backpack reduce the fluctuations of absolute vertical motion of the load. Because the hip (and thus the pack frame) go up a down a good deal during walking, a large relative movement between the frame and the load reduces the absolute excursion of the load. This movement may be, in turn, transferred to a motor through, for example, a rack and pinion gear, to convert the mechanical movement to electrical energy. The movement may also be converted to electrical energy by using an electroactive polymer (EAP) to connect the suspended load to the frame. Such designs allow the load to move in a controlled fashion to prevent the patient from losing his or her balance as the load moves up and down along the backpack frame. Such movement of the suspended-load relative to the frame also reduces the forces on the wearer's shoulders while walking or running, thus reducing the likelihood of orthopedic injury.
“Energy Scavenging with Shoe-Mounted Piezoelectrics Piezoelectric Shoe Power; Two Approaches”, IEEE Micro, Computer.org http://www.computer.org/micro/homepage/may_june./shenck/01.htm, Feb. 28, 2003.
“Pedaling onto the Information Superhighway” http://cnn.technologyprintthis.clickability.com, Feb. 18, 2003, 2 pages.
Engsberg, J. et al., “Comparison of Effort Between Below-Knee Amputee and Normal Children”, Journal of the Association of Children's Prosthetic-Orthotic Clinics, 1991, 26(2), 46-53.
Fedak, M.A. et al., “One-step N2-Dilution technique for calibrating Open-Circuit VO2 Measuring Systems”, Journal of Applied Physiology, 1981, R51, 772-776.
Hirano, M. et al., “Jumping Performance of Frogs(Rana Pipiens) as a Function of Muscle Temperature”, Journal of Experimental Biology, 1984, 108,429-439.
Hong, Y. et al., “Gait and Posture Responses to Backpack Load durign Level Walking in Children”, Gait and Posture, 2003, 17(1), 28-33.
Kram, R., “Carrying Loads with Springy Poles”, Journal of Applied Physiology, 1991, 71(3), 1119-1122.
LaFriandra, M.E. et al., “The Effect of Walking Grade and Backpack Mass on the Forces Exerted on the Hips and Shoulders by the Backpack”, Untied States Army Research institute of Environmental Medicine. United States Science Conference, 2002, 2 pages.
Lutz, G.J. et al., “Built for Jumping: The Design of the Frog Muscular System”, Science, 1994, 263, 370-372.
Negrini, S. et al., “Backpack as a Daily Load for Schoolchildren”, The Lancet, 1999, 354(9194), 1974.
Taimela, S. et al., “The Prevalence of Low Back Pain Among Children and Adolescents: A Nationwide, Cohort-based Questionnaire Survey in Finland”, Spine, 1997, 22(10), 1132-1136.
Troussier, B. et al., “Back Pain in School Children a Study Among 1178 Pupils”, Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 1994, 26, 143-146.
Vacheron, J.J. et al., “The Effect of Loads Carried on the Shoulders”, Military Medicine, 1999, 164(8), 597-599.
De Gaspari, J. et al., “Hot Stuff, Advanced Materials are moving out of the Lab and Into the Commerical World”, Mechanical Engineering, 2002, 32-35.
James Drake, “The Greatest Shoe on Earth”, Feb. 2001, Wired, 90-100.
Negrini, et al., “Backpacks On! Schoolchildren's Perception of Load, Associations with Back Pain and Factors Determining the Load”, Spine, 2002, 27(2), 187-195.
Park, et al., “Ultrahigh Strain and Piezoelectric Behavior in Relaxof Based Ferroelectric Single Crystals”, J. Appl. Phys., 1997, 82, 1804.
Pelrine, et al., “Dielectric Elastomers: generator Mode Fundamentals and Applications”, Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2001, 4329, 148-156.
Shenck, N.S. et al., “Energy Scavenging with Shoe-Mounted Piezoelectrics”, IEEE, 2001, 30-42.
Stanford, S. et al., “Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle for Underwater Robotics”, SRI International, 10 pages.
Xia, et al., “High Electromechanical Responses in Terpolymer of Poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene-chlorofluroethylene”, Adv Masters, 2002, 14, 1574-1577.
Kymissis, J. et al., “Parasitic Power Harvesting in Shoes”, IEEE Int'l Conference Wearable Computing, 1998, 132-139.
Davies, C.T.M. et al., “Maximal Mechanical Power Output of Cyclists and Young Adults”, European Journal of Applied Physiology, 1989, 58, 838-844.
Martin, J.C., “Inertial-load Method Determines Maximal Cycling Power in a Single Exercise Bout”, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1997, 29(11), 1505-1512.
Vandewalle, H. t al., “Force-Velocity relationship and Maximal Cycling Power on a Cycle Ergometer Correlation with the Height of a Vertical Jump”, European Journal of Applied Physiology, 1987, 56, 6650-656.
R.C. Sprague, Unpublished Observations, 2003.
Brooks, G.A. et al., Exercise Physiology, 3rd Ed., 2000.
Saltin, B. et al., “Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Athletes”, Journal of Applied Physiology, 1967, 23, 353-358.
Franklin, B.A. et al., “ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription”, 6th Ed., p. 303.
Biewener, A.A. et al., “In Vivo Muscle Force-Length Behavior During Steady-Speed Hopping in Tammar Wallabies”, Journal of Experimental Biology, 1998, 201(pt11), 1681-1694.
Roberts, T.J. et al., “Muscular force in Running Turkeys: The Economy of Minimizing Work”, Science, 1997, 21:275(5303), 1113-1115.
Alexander, R.M. et al., “The Role of Tendon Elasticity in the Locomotion of the Camel”, Journal of Zoology, 1982, 198, 293-313.
Alexander, R.M. “Energy-Saving Mechanisms in Walking and Running”, Journal of Experimental Biology, 1991, 160, 55-69.
Heglund, N.C. et al., “Energetics and Mechanics of Terrestrial Locomotion. IV. Total Mechanical Energy Changes as a Function of Speed and Body Size in Birds and Mammals”, Journal of Experimental Biology, 1982, 97, 57-66.
Biewener, A.A. et al., “Muscle and Tendon Contributions to Force, Work, and Elastic Energy Savings: A Comparative Perspective”, Exerc Sport Sci Rev, Jul. 2000, 28(3), 99-107.
Taylor, C.R. et al., “The Energetic Cost of Generating Muscular Force During Running”, Journal of Experimental Biology, 1980, 86, 9-18.
Cavagna, G.A. et al., “Mechanical Work in Terrestrial Locomotion: Two Basic Mechanisms for Minimizing Energy Expenditure”, American Journal of Physiology, 1977, 233, R243-261.
Holt, K.G. et al., “Increased Musuloskeletal Stiffness During Load Carriage at Increasing Walking Speeds Maintains Constant Vertical Excursion of the Body Center of Mass”, Journal of Biomechanics, 2003, 36, 465-471.
Balague, F. et al., “Non-Specific Low Back Pain in Children and Adolescents: Risk Factors”, European Spine Journal, 1999, 8(6), 429-438.
Taimela, S. et al., “The Prevalence of Low Back Pain Among Children and Adolescents: A Nationwide, Cohort-Based Questionnaire Survey in Finland”, Spine, 1997, 22(10), 1132-1136.
Hong, Y. et al., “Gait and Posture Responses to Backpack Load During Level Walking in Children”, Gait and Posture, 2003, 7(1), 28-33.
Chansirinukor, W. et al., “Effects of Backpacks on Students: Measurement of Cervical and Shoulder Posture”, Australian Journal of Physiotheraphy, 2001, 47(2), 110-116.
Pascoe, D.D. et al., “Influence of Carrying Book Bags on Gait Cycle and Posture in Youths” Ergonomics, 1997, 40(6), 631-641.
Hong Kong Society for Child Health and Development. “The Weight of School Bags and its Relation to Spinal Deformity”, Hong Kong: The Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Hong Kong, The Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital, 1988.