Patent 6138075 Issued on October 24, 2000. Estimated Expiration Date: August 5, 2018. Estimated Expiration Date is calculated based on simple USPTO term provisions. It does not account for terminal disclaimers, term adjustments, failure to pay maintenance fees, or other factors which might affect the term of a patent.
The invention provides methods and systems for analyzing seismic data. In one method, a set of three-dimensional seismic signal traces are provided. A reference of one of the traces is compared with at least two neighboring traces to find a neighbor trace with the least or most similarity to the reference trace. This neighbor trace is defined as a target trace. The reference trace is then compared with the target trace to produce a comparison value which is saved for later output or display.
Aftab Alam, et al., "Advances in 3D Seismic Fault Interpretation," 1994
A. Alam, et al., "3-D Interpretation Using Interactive Graphics"
F. Aminzadeh, "Image Processing and Pattern Recognition in Exploration Geophysics," 1986
Mike S. Bahorich, et al., "Stratigraphic and Structural Interpretation with 3-D Coherence," 1995
Michael S. Bahorich, et al., "Seismic Sequence Attribute Map (SSAM)"
Mike Bahorich, et al., "3-D Seismic Discontinuity for Faults and Stratigraphic Features: The Coherence Cube," 1995
Mike Bahorich, et al., "Stratigraphic Interpretation of Seismic Data on the Workstation," 1994
Mike S. Bahorich, et al., "3-D Seismic Discontinuity for Faults and Stratigraphic Features: The Coherence Cube," 1995
Michael S. Bahorich, et al., "Static Corrections on the Southeastern Piedmont of the United States," 1982
Mike Bahorich, "The Seismic Sequence Atribute Map (SSAM)," 1994
Arthur E. Barnes, "Theory of 2-D Complex Seismic Trace Analysis," 1996
D. Bhaskara Rao, et al., "A Fortran-77 Computer Program for Three-Dimensional Analysis of Gravity Anomalies with Variable Density Contrast," 1991
Thomas N. Bishop, et al., "Correcting Amplitude, Time, and Phase Mis-Ties in Seismic Data"
B. Boiardi, et al., "Signal Coherence Measure in Seismic Data Processing," 1989
Bruno Boiardi, et al., "The Signal Coherence as a Versatile Diagnostic Tool to Improve Seismic Data Processing Effectiveness," 1991
Marion R. Bone, et al., "Analysis of Seismic Data using Horizontal Cross-Sections," 1983
Patricia Boronad, et al., "Stacking Migrated Shot Profiles by Image Processing," 1989
J.D. Bouvier, et al., "Three-Dimensional Seismic Interpretation and Fault Sealing Investigations, Nun River Field, Nigeria," 1989
E.C. Brede, et al., "Interactive Fault Mapping: A Case Study," 1986
M. Brink, et al., "Evaluation of 3-D Coverage Specs-A Case Study," 1993
Alistair R. Brown, "Structural Interpretation from Horizontal Seismic Sections," 1983
Alistair R. Brown, Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Seismic Data (Chapter 3), .COPYRGT.1991
A.R. Brown, et al., "A Stratigraphic Case History Using Three-Dimensional Seismic Data in the Gulf of Thailand," 1981
Alistar R. Brown, et al., "Fault Slicing--A New Approach to the Interpretation of Fault Detail," 1987
Alistar R. Brown, "A Coherent Approach to 3-D," 1997
Hermann Buchholtz, "Three-Dimensional Seismic-Reflection Techniques," 1988
Luis L. Canales, et al., "3-D Trace Interpolation in the f-x-p Domain"
C. Cardaci, et al., "Cross-Correlation Analysis of Seismic and Volcanic Data at Mt Etna Volcano, Italy," 1993
John P. Castagna, et al., "Comparison of AVO Indicators: A Modeling Study," 1994
Jon F. Claerbout, "3-D Local Monoplane Annihilator," 1993
Jon F. Claerbout, "3-D Data Infill and Extrapolation," 1993
Jon F. Claerbout, "Information from Smiles: Mono-Plane-Annihilator Weighted Regression," 1992
J. F. Claerbout, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Chapter 7, 1992
J. F. Claerbout, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Chapter 8, 1992
D.L. Connelly, et al., "Northwestern Williston Basin Case Histories with 3-D Seismic Data," 1991
Yao-Chou Cheng, et al., "The Binary Consistency Checking Scheme and Its Applications to Seismic Horizon Detection," 1989
C.G. Dahm, et al., "Field Development with Three-Dimensional Seismic Methods in the Gulf of Thailand--A Case History," 1982
R.M. Dalley, et al., "Dip and Azimuth Displays for 3D Seismic Interpretation," 1989
Geoffrey A. Dorn, et al., "Detailed Fault Interpretation of 3-D Seismic Data for EOR Planning," 1989
John H. Doveton, Geologic Log Analysis Using Computer Methods, Chapter 6, 1994
Radivoj Drecun, et al., "Enhancement of Edge Patterns on Horizontal Time Slices"
Jean Dumay, et al., "Multivariate Statistical Analyses Applied to Seismic Facies Recognition," 1988
C. Patrick Ervin, et al., "Automated Analysis of Marine Refraction Data: A Computer Algorithm," 1983
Michael E. Enachescu, "Amplitude Interpretation of 3-D Reflection Data," 1993
D.J. Foster, et al., "A Closer Look at Hydrocarbon Indicators," 1994
Wayne R. Gibson, et al., "3-D Seismic has Renewed the Search for Stratigrahic Traps," 1992
Robert J. Greaves, et al., "Three-Dimensional Seismic Monitoring of an Enhanced Oil Recovery Process," 1987
N. Gulunay, et al., "Prediction Filtering for 3-D Poststack Data," 1993
Robert M. Galbraith, et al., "Field Appraisal with Three-Dimensional Seismic Surveys Offshore Trinidad," 1982
Anthony C. Gerhardstein, et al., "Interactive Interpretation of Seismic Data," 1984
E. Harrigan, et al., "3D Event Tracking Using Cross-Probabilistic Data Association (XPDA)"
Norman L. Haskell, et al., "3-D Seismic Coherence and the Imaging of Sedimentological Features," 1995
P. Haskey, et al., "Applications of Real-Time 3d Processing"
H.L.J.G. Hoetz, et al., "Seismic Horizon Attribute Mapping for the Annerveen Gasfield, The Netherlands," 1992
S. Horvath, "The Effectiveness of Offshore Three-Dimensional Seismic Surveys--Case Histories," 1985
L.M. Houston, et al., "Multiple Suppression using a Local Coherene Filter"
Peter Hubral, et al., "Interval Velocities from Seismic Reflection Time Measurements," 1980
Fethi Ben Jemma, et al., "Effect of Parameter Cross-Correlation on Groundwater Sampling Design," 1991
Ernest R. Kanasewich, et al., "Imaging Discontinuites on Seismic Sections," 1988
Martin karrenbach, "Three-Dimensional Time-Slice Migration," 1990
John Kerr, et al., "Continuity: A New Interpretation Tool," 1996
N. Keskes, et al., "Automatic Extraction of 3-D Seismic Horizons," 1983
N. Keskes, et al., "Application of Image Analysis Techniques to Seismic Data," 1982
N. Keskes, et al., "Les techniques d'analyse d'images au service de l'interpretation structurale des donnees sismiques 3D et 2D," 1992 (English translation attached)
N. Keskes, et al., "Image Analysis Techniques for Seismic Data," 1982 (SEG Annual International Meeting--Abstracts)
N. Keskes, et al., "Image Analysis Techniques for Seismic Data," S16.7, 1982 (SEG Annual International Meeting and Exposition--Technical Program Abstracts and Biographies)
Naamen Keskes, et al., "Image Processing as a Tool for Interpreting 3D and 2D Seismic Data," 1991
Naamen Keskes, et al., "Statistical Study of Edges in TV Pictures," 1979
Naamen Keskes, "Image Analysis Techniques Applied to 2D and 3D Seismic Data," 1994
Naamen Keskes, et al., "Seismic Horizon Extraction by Heuristic Methods," 1983
N. Keskes, et al.,"Application of an Interactive Statistical Classification System to the Analysis of High Resolution Dipmeter Curves," 1987 (Vol. I, Paper O)
Harald Kirchner, "Blockmatching with Column and Row Oriented Optimization," 1990
Klaus-Peter Karmann, et al., "Moving Object Recognition Using an Adaptive Background Memory," 1990
W.S. Kowalik, et al., Chevron's Geolmage--Enhancement and Stereoscopic Viewing of Seismic Horizons and Other Grids for Improved Data Understanding and Communciation, 1995
Jerome R. Krebs, "Three-Dimensional Migration of Swath Surveys," 1990
E. Landa, et al., "A Method for Detection of Diffracted Waves on Common-Offset Sections," 1987
Ken Larner, et al., "In Quest of the Flank," 1989
H.J. Lehmann, et al., "Practical Aspects of the Determination of 3-D Stacking Velocities," 1985
V. Lendzionowski et al., "Seismic Character Mapping Over Reservoir Intervals," 1990
John N. Louie, et al., "Three-Dimensional Imaging of Steeply Dipping Structure Near the San Andreas Fault, Parkfield, California," 1988
Y. Luo, et al., "Edge Detection and Stratigraphic Analysis Using 3D Seismic Data," 1996
D. Bradford Macurda, Jr., et al., "Interactive Interpretation of a Submarine Fan, Offshore Ireland: A Case History," 1988
Michel Manin, et al., "Comparison of Seismic Results After Dip and Strike Acquisition"
A.S.J. McQuaid, et al., "Surely that's Not Seismic! The Benefits of Image Processing"
Ron McWhorter, et al., "Palacios Field: A 3-D Case History," 1995
Bernd Milkereit, et al.,"Noise Suppression and Coherency Enhancement of Seismic Data," 1990
M. Hugh Miller, Jr., et al., "Time Slices from Two-Dimensional Seismic Surveys," 1989
Hugh G. Miller, et al., "Semiquantitative Techniques for the Identification and Removal of Directional Trends in Potential Field Data," 1994
Olivier Monga, et al., "A Hierarchical Algorithm for the Segmentation of 3-D Images," 1986
Jaap C. Mondt, "Use of Dip and Azimuth Horizon Attributes in 3D Seismic Interpretation," 1993
E.O. Nestvold, "3-D Seismic: Is The Promise Fulfilled?" 1992
E.O. Nestvold, "3D Seismic: A Strategic Tool in Exploration and Production"
Susan E. Nissen, et al., "3-D Seismic Coherency Techniques Applied to the Identification and Delineation of Slump Features," 1995
James K. O'Connell, et al., "Bullwinkle: A Unique 3-D Experiment," 1993
R.F. O'Doherty, et al., "A Method of Computing Instantaneous Frequency and Dip"
Richard Ottollni, et al., "On-line Movies of Reflection Seismic Data with Description of a Movie Machine," 1984
Greg A. Partyka, et al., Seismic Character Mapping Using Multivariate Statistical Pattern Integration, 1993
F.M. Peterson, et al., "Three-Dimensional Seismic Exploration-A Cost-Effective Approach," 1989
Harald s. Poelchau, "Coherence Mapping--An Automated Approach to Display Goodness-of-Correlation Between Wells in a Field," 1987
Normal Pullin, et al., " Techniques Applied to Obtain Very High Resolution 3-D Seismic Imaging at an Athabasca Tar Sands Thermal Pilot," 1987
Sandra K. Raeuchle, et al., "3-D Seismic Data for Field Development: Landslide Field Case Study," 1991
Murali Ramaswamy, et al., "Autocorrelation Estimation Using Constrained Iterative Spectral Deconvolution," 1989
Erwin Rieser, et al., "Frontier Exploration Techniques Appled to Multivintage 2D Seismic"
E.J.H. Rijks, et al., "Attribute Extraction: An Important Application in any Detailed 3-D Interpretation Study," 1991
Walter R. Roest, et al., "Magnetic Interpretation using the 3-D analytic Signal," 1992
Adrienne Rogers, "Developments in Geophysical Exploration Methods-2. Chapter 1: Determination of Statics Corrections," 1981
Richard D. Rosencrans, "Cost-effective 3-D Seismic Survey Design," 1992
Tim Ellis Scheuer, et al., "Local Phase Velocity from Complex Seismic Data," 1988
Philip S. Schultz, et al., "A Post-Stack Method for 3-D Crossline Statics Estimation"
Philip S. Schultz, et al., "Poststack Estimation of Three-Dimensional Crossline Statics," 1984
P.S. Schultz, et al., "Stratigraphic Processing of 3D Seismic by Concurrent Analysis of Surface and Borehole Data," 1990 (North Sea Oil and Gas Reservoirs; II, Proceedings ofthe North Sea Oil and Gas Reservoirs Conference
Philip S. Schultz, et al., "Stratigraphic Processing of 3-D Seismic by Concurrent Analysis of Surface and Borehole Data"
Philip S. Schultz, "Seismic Data Processing: Current Industry Practice and New Directions," 1985
Hiromasa Shima, "2-D and 3-D Resistivity Image Reconstruction using Crosshole Data," 1992
Lars Sonneland, et al., "Application of Seismic Wave Field Attributes in Reservoir Characterization," 1989
L. Sonneland, et al., "Use of Seismic Attributes in Reservoir Characterization," 1990
Martin R. Stytz, et al., "Using Kriging for 3D Medical Imaging," 1993
Paul Switzer, et al., "Estimation of Atmospheric Path-Radiance by Covariance Matrix Method," 1981
M. Turhan Taner, et al., "Seismic Attributed Revisited," 1994
Clifford H. Thurber, et al., "Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging," 1987
L.A. Tilbury, et al., "Image Processing of Interpreted 3D Seismic Data to Enhance Subtle Structural Features/Lineations," 1991
Steven Tobias, "Expansion Profiles and Sequence Stratigraphy: A New Way to Identify Systems Tracts, Sequence Boundaries, and Eustatic Histories," 1990
John Toldi, "Velocity Analysis Without Picking"
Milovan Urosevic, et al., "Application of 3-D Seismic Methods to Detection of Subtle Faults in Coal Seams"
Marin van Heel, et al., "Correlation Functions Revisited," 1992
Donald A. Vossler, "Automatic Delineation of Lateral Facies Changes in Clastic Environments," 1989
Donald A. Vossler, "Automatic Whole Section Seismic Reflection Mapping," 1988
Robert H. Wolfe, Jr., et al., "Interactive Three-Dimensional Seismic Display by Volumetric Rendering," 1988
Hong Yan, "Skew Correction of Document Images using Interline Cross-Correlation," 1993
Ozdogan Yilmaz, "Interpretation of 3-D Seismic Data," 1987
Hau-wei Zhou, "Traveltime Tomography with a Spatial-Coherency Filter," 1993
Chengnan Zhu, et al., "Seismic Data Processing and Interpretation of the Regina Trough in Southern Saskatchewan, Canada"
Product Literature from Advance Geophysical Corporation, "Seismic Sequence Attribute Analysis"
Product Brochure, The Seisworks Family
Spatio-Temporal Image Processing, "Theory and Scientific Applications," Chapter 5 (Springer-Verlag