Multichromophoric benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers Patent #: 3981884
ApplicationNo. 05/715014 filed on 08/16/1976
US Classes:252/402, Sulphur organic compound containing252/403, Oxygen organic compound containing524/89, Nitrogen ring is part of a ring system having three or more rings fused or bridged together548/261The chalcogen, X, is in a -C(=X)- group
ExaminersPrimary: Rzucidlo, Eugene C.
Attorney, Agent or Firm
DescriptionThis invention relates to bichromophoric ultraviolet stabilizers andtheir use in organic compositions. More particularly, the invention relates to bichromophoric benzotriazole-styrene ester compositions and the stabilization of ultraviolet degradable organic compositions against deterioration resulting from the exposureto such radiations with such bichromophoric compositions.
The degradative effects of ultraviolet light on various organic compositions is well known in the art. The photo-deterioration or degradation is of particular concern with organic photo-degradable compositions which are exposed to ultravioletlight, such as sunlight, for long periods of time. One group of such photo-degradable organic compositions is polymeric compositions such as polyolefins, polyesters and the like. On exposure to sunlight for extended periods of time, these polymericcompositions degrade and their physical properties are reduced to render the polymeric composition less useful for most applications. Therefore, considerable effort has been directed to providing a solution to the photo-degradation problem of polymericcompositions. As a result of this effort, there have been discovered many additives and stabilizers which improve the stability of polymeric compositions.
Moreover, various additives and stabilizers exhibit the power to absorb ultraviolet radiation within the band of 2900 to 4000 A. and, when incorporated in various plastic materials such as transparent sheets, the resultant sheet acts as a filterfor all the radiation passing through and will transmit only such radiations as are not absorbed by the sheet and/or the absorbing agent. It is thus possible to screen out undesirable radiations and utilize the resulting transparent sheet as a filter inmany technical and commercial applications, such as wrappings for food products and the like.
While there are many additives, stabilizers and mixtures thereof which are known in the art to improve the ultraviolet light stability of organic compositions, there is a need in the art for more efficient and effective stabilizers to prevent thephoto-degradation of organic compositions susceptible to photo-degradation. Therefore, to provide a more effective and efficient ultraviolet stabilizer for organic compositions susceptible to such degradation would be an advance in the state of the art.
It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide more effective and efficient ultraviolet light stabilizer compositions.
Another object of the present invention is to provide useful compositions characterized by improved resistance to ultraviolet degradation and deterioration.
It is still another object of the present invention to provide compositions containing bichromophoric compositions which are resistant to ultraviolet degradation.
It is a still further object of this invention to provide processes for improving the resistance of organic materials to deterioration and degradation by actinic radiation and especially ultraviolet radiation.
It is a still further object of this invention to provide compositions and processes for improving the resistance of organic materials to deterioration and degradation by actinic radiations, including short wave-length visible radiations.
Further objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the accompanying disclosure and claims.
In accordance with the present invention, bichromophoric benzotriazole-styrene ester compositions are provided which are useful as ultraviolet stabilizers or ultraviolet screening agents. These organic compositions contain at least onebenzotriazole group containing composition connected to a styrene ester. The multichromophoric compositions of the present invention have the following structure:
wherein A is a group having the structure ##STR1## wherein R1, R2, R3 and R4 are hydrogen, lower alkyl or substituted lower alkyl having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, cycloalkyl, substituted cycloalkyl, aryl or substituted aryl having6 to 18 carbon atoms, lower alkylaryl, aryl-substituted-aryl, chloro, bromo, alkoxy, substituted amino, cyano, carboalkoxy and the substituents R1 and R2, R2 and R3, and R3 and R4, combined with the carbon atoms to whichthey are attached, are joined alkylene groups completing a carbocyclic ring, which ring can also be substituted with one or more of the substituents listed above for R1, R2, R3 and R4.
I is a substituent listed above for R1, R2, R3 and R4 and is present on all positions of the benzenoid ring, except the carbon atom attached to the N substituent and the carbon atom attached to the B group. The B connectinggroup is attached to the benzenoid ring in the ortho, meta or para position from the carbon atom connected to the heterocyclic ring. The I substituents can all be one of the substituents listed above or different listed substituents;
wherein B is a linking group connecting A and C and can be oxy, carbonyloxy, oxycarbonylalkyleneoxy, alkyleneoxycarbonyloxy, oxyalkylenecarbonyloxy, oxycarbonyloxy, alkyleneoxy, alkyleneoxyalkyleneoxy, oxyalkylenearylenealkyleneoxy, thio,thioalkyleneoxy, sulfinyldioxy, oxy(alkoxy)phosphinooxy, aminocarbonylalkyleneoxy, N-alkylaminocarbonylalkyleneoxy, N-arylaminocarbonylalkyleneoxy, aminocarbonylamino, N-alkylaminocarbonylamino, N,N-dialkylaminocarbonyl, N-arylaminocarbonyl,N-alkylaminocarbonyl, N,N-diarylaminocarbonyl, N-alkylaminoalkyleneoxy, N-arylaminoalkyleneoxy, oxyalkyleneoxy, oxyaryleneoxy, alkyleneaminoalkylene, aryleneaminoarylene, aryleneaminoalkylene and alkyleneaminoarylene; and
C is a group having the formula ##STR2## where I is the same substituent as listed above and said I substituents can all be one of the substituents listed above or different listed substituents and R5 is an alkyl group containing 1 to 20carbon atoms and R6 is cyano, alkylsulfonyl, arylsulfonyl, arylcarbonyl, alkylcarbonyl or carbonylalkoxy. The B connecting group is attached to the benzenoid ring in the ortho, meta or para position from the nitrogen group of the triazole ring.
Suitable heterocyclic A groups having the structure ##STR3## are for example substituted and unsubstituted benzotriazoles such as 4-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 4-(5-methoxy-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl,2,6-dimethyl-4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 2,6-dimethyl-4-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 2-methyl-4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 2-methyl-4-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 2-chloro-4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl,2,6-dichloro-4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 2-chloro-4-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 2,6-dichloro-4-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 2,6-dimethyl-4-(5-methoxy-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl,2,6-dichloro-4-(5-methoxy-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 2-chloro-4-(5-methoxy-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 2-methyl-4-(5-methoxy-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 2-phenyl-4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, 2-phenyl-4-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl,2-phenyl-4-(5-methoxy-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenyl, and the like.
Suitable B groups are for example alkylene, arylene, carbonyloxy, oxy, oxycarbonylalkylene such as oxycarbonylmethyleneoxy, oxycarbonylethyleneoxy, oxycarbonyl-1,4-butanediyloxy, alkyleneoxycarbonyloxy such as methyleneoxycarbonyloxy,ethyleneoxycarbonyloxy, 1,4-butanediyloxycarbonyloxy, 1,5-pentanediyloxycarbonyloxy, oxycarbonyloxy, alkyleneoxy such as methyleneoxy, ethyleneoxy, 1,3-propanediyloxy and the like, alkyleneoxyalkyleneoxy such as methyleneoxymethyleneoxy,ethyleneoxyethyleneoxy, methyleneoxyethyleneoxy, ethyleneoxymethyleneoxy and the like, oxyalkyleneoxy such as oxymethyleneoxy, oxyethyleneoxy, oxy-1,4-butanediyloxy and the like, oxyalkylenearylenealkyleneoxy such as oxymethylenephenylenemethyleneoxy,oxyethylenephenylenemethyleneoxy, oxypropylenephenylenemethyleneoxy, oxyethylenenaphthyleneethyleneoxy and the like, thio, thioalkyleneoxy such as thiomethyleneoxy, thioethyleneoxy and the like, sulfinyldioxy, oxy(alkoxy)phosphinooxy such asoxy(methoxy)phosphinooxy, oxy(ethoxy)phosphinooxy, oxy(butoxy)phosphinooxy and the like, aminocarbonylalkyleneoxy such as aminocarbonylmethyleneoxy, aminocarbonyl-1,4-butanediyloxy, N-methylaminocarbonylmethyleneoxy, N-phenylaminocarbonylethyleneoxy andthe like, aminocarbonylamino, alkylaminocarbonylamino such as N-methylaminocarbonylamino, N-ethylaminocarbonylamino and the like, arylaminocarbonylamino such as N-phenylaminocarbonylamino, N-(3-methylphenyl)aminocarbonylamino,N-arylaminocarbonyl-N'-arylamino, such as N-phenylaminocarbonyl-N'-phenylamino, N-alkylaminocarbonyl-N'-arylamino such as N-methylaminocarbonyl-N'-phenylamino and the like, N-arylaminocarbonyl-N'-alkylamino such as N-phenylaminocarbonyl-N'-methylamino orN-methylaminocarbonyl-N'-phenylamino and the like, amino, alkyleneamino such as methyleneamino, 1,4-butanediylamino, 1,5-pentanediylamino, and the like, aryleneamino such as phenyleneamino and the like, N-alkylaminoalkyleneoxy such asN-methylaminomethyleneoxy, N-ethylaminomethyleneoxy and the like, N-arylaminoalkyleneoxy such as N-phenylaminomethyleneoxy, N-phenylaminoethyleneoxy and the like, oxyalkyleneaminoalkyleneoxy such as oxymethyleneaminomethyleneoxy,oxymethyleneaminoethyleneoxy and the like, alkyleneaminocarbonylamino such as methyleneaminocarbonylamino, ethyleneaminocarbonylamino and the like, oxyalkylene(N-alkyl)aminoalkyleneoxy such as oxymethylene(N-methyl)aminomethyleneoxy and the like;
wherein C is a styrene group having the formula ##STR4## are for example 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-cyanoacryloyl, 2-(2-methyl-4-n-butoxyphenyl)-1-cyanoacryloyl, 2-(2,5-dimethyl-4-isooctyloxyphenyl-1-cyanoacryloyl,2-(2-chloro-4-ethoxyphenyl)-1-cyanoacryloyl, 2-(2-butamido-4-n-butoxyphenyl)-1-cyanoacryloyl, 2-(2-cyano-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-cyanoacryloyl, 2-(2-ethoxy-4-ethoxyphenyl)-1-cyanoacryloyl, 2-(2,5-dichloro-4-cyclohexyloxyphenyl)-1-cyanoacryloyl,2-(4-n-octadecyloxyphenyl)-1-cyanoacryloyl, 2-(4-isopropyloxyphenyl)-1-cyanoacryloyl, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylsulfonylacryloyl, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-benzoylacryloyl, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-propionylacryloyl,2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-benzenesulfonylacryloyl, 2-(2-methyl-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-cyanoacryloyl, 2-(2-chloro-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-p-toluenesulfonylacryloyl.
The bichromophoric compositions can be added to organic compositions which are susceptible to ultraviolet degradation. Such compositions include, for example, polymeric compositions such as polyester fiber and molding compositions, such aspolyethylene terephthalate, poly(tetramethylene terephthalate) and the like; polyolefins such as, for example, high, medium and low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polybutene and the like; polyamides such as N-methoxymethyl polyhexamethyleneadipamide and the like; polycarbonates; polyvinyl chlorides and copolymers; cellulose esters; acrylic/butadiene/styrene plastic; polyacrylics such as methyl methacrylate; polystyrene, gelatin; vinylidene chloride copolymers such as vinylidenechloride/vinyl acetate copolymers; ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers; fluorocarbon resins such as poly(vinylidene fluoride); cellulose ethers such as methyl cellulose; polyvinyl esters such as polyvinyl acetate; polyethylene oxide; polyvinyl acetals;polyformaldehydes; and polyurethanes. Such compositions also include natural and synthetic rubbers, such as polybutadiene, and unsaturated organic compositions such as oils and the like, as well as compositions containing such organic compositions.
The bichromophoric compositions, as effective ultraviolet stabilizers or screening agents, are generally used in an amount of from 0.01 to 10%, by weight, based on the weight of the organic material to which they are added. While a detectableamount of ultraviolet screening and stabilization may be obtained with amounts less than 0.01%, this amount of stabilization or screening would be of little practical utility in a commercial application. Moreover, while amounts greater than 10%, byweight, provide effective ultraviolet stability and screening, such concentrations are undesirable because of cost and the deleterious effect which such concentrations may have on the mechanical properties of the organic composition in which thestabilizer is incorporated. Preferably, the stabilizer is used in an amount of from about 0.1 to about 3%, by weight. For example, an amount of 2%, by weight, of the stabilizer effectively stabilizes cellulose acetate butyrate plastic compositions.
The ultraviolet stabilized organic compositions of the present invention may also contain other additives, pigments, colorants, stabilizers and the like. For example, polymeric compositions, such as polyolefins, may also contain and generally docontain other additives such as white or colored pigments or colorants, antioxidants, plasticizers, flow aids, processing aids, polymeric modifiers and the like.
These novel bichromophoric ultraviolet stabilizers may be incorporated into organic compositions by melt-blending or may be added onto the surface of an organic plastic material prior to being molded into a suitable object. The materials canalso be added to coatings and the like which can be applied to the surface of a molded object.
This invention will be further illustrated by the following examples although it will be understood that these examples are included merely forpurposes of illustration and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.
o-Nitroaniline (0.5 mole) was diazotized in the usual manner with concentrated hydrochloric acid (120 ml.) and sodium nitrite (0.5 mole). The clear diazonium solution was added slowly to a cold solution (0°-5° C.) of phenol (0.5mole) in 450 ml. of 10% sodium hydroxide. The mixture was stirred for 1 hour and Compound A filtered; recrystallization from ethanol provided a 47% yield of A. One-tenth mole of Compound A was dissolved in 100 ml. of 2N NaOH. Zinc dust (30g.) andsodium hydroxide (50 ml. of a 25% solution) were added slowly to the well-stirred solution. The mixture was then cooled to <30° C. and acidified with concentrated hydrochloric acid. After stirring for 2 hours, the precipitate was filtered. Compound B was recrystallized from toluene (71% yield). A mixture of the sodium salt of Compound B (0.01 mole) and cyanoacetyl chloride (0.01 mole) in anhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide was stirred at 30° C. for 18 hr. and solvent was removed byvacuum on a steam bath. The residue was recrystallized from mixed xylenes to provide an 84% yield of active methylene C. Compound C (0.01 mole) in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (25 ml.) containing a trace of pyridine/piperidine was stirred during addition of 0.01mole 4-methoxybenzaldehyde. After stirring for 15 hrs., the mixture was cooled to precipitate D (68% yield). Recrystallization from xylene/hexane provided pure D as slightly tan crystals. ##STR5##
Other novel bichromophoric compounds can be prepared by substitution of other benzotriazoles for 4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2,6-dimethylphenol, such as 4-(5-chloro-b 2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2,6-dimethylphenol, 4-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)phenol,4-(5-methyl-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2,6-dimethylphenol, 4-(5-methyl-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2-methylphenol, 4-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2-methylphenol, 4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2-methylphenol, 4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2-chlorophenol,4-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2-chlorophenol, 4-(5-methyl-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2-chlorophenol, 4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 4-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenol,4-(5-methyl-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 4-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2-methoxyphenol, 4-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-(5-methyl-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-2-methoxyphenol.
Also, other bichromophoric compounds can be prepared by substituting other acid chlorides for cyanoacetyl chloride, such as methanesulfonylacetyl chloride, ethanesulfonylacetyl chloride, cyclohexanesulfonylacetyl chloride, carbo-t-butoxyacetylchloride, acetoacetyl chloride, benzoylacetyl chloride, 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)acetyl chloride and the like; or by substituting other aldehydes for 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, such as 2-methyl-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-(n-dodecyloxy)benzaldehyde,2,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde, 2,6-dichloro-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, 2-chloro-4-benzyloxybenzaldehyde, 2-methyl-4-(β-metoxyethoxy)benzaldehyde, 4-cyclohexyloxybenzaldehyde. Moreover, while the example illustrates a sequence of reactions in which the finalstep involves reaction of an aldehyde with an "active methylene" compound C, alternative syntheses are often preferred, and are, in fact, well known in the art. For instance, the preparation of D could have involved reaction of the phenol B with theacid chloride E. ##STR6##
The example hereinabove shows the linking group as an oxy group. Other linking groups can be provided as known in the art, as for example:
1. an oxycarbonylalkyleneoxy by esterification of an acid or acid chloride with an alcohol or phenol in alkaline medium;
2. an oxycarbonyloxy by the reaction of phosgene with alcohol or phenol in alkaline medium;
3. an alkyleneoxy by the reaction of halide with alkali salt of alcohol or phenol;
4. an alkylenealkyleneoxy by the reaction of halide with alkali salt of alcohol or phenol;
5. a sulfinyldioxy by the reaction of thionyl chloride with alcohol or phenol in alkaline solution;
6. a thio by the reaction of a sodium sulfide with a halide;
7. an oxy(alkoxy)phosphinooxy by the reaction of a dichlorophosphite with phenol in the presence of a base;
8. an N-alkyl or N-arylaminocarbonyl by the reaction of an acid chloride with an amine;
9. an N-alkyl or N-arylaminocarbonylalkoxy by the reaction of an acid chloride with an amine;
10. an N-alkyl or N-arylaminocarbonylamino by the reaction of phosgene with an amine;
11. an N-alkyl or N-arylaminoalkylene by the reaction of an alkyl halide with an amine;
12. an N-alkyl or N-arylaminoalkyleneoxy by the reaction of an oxyalkyl halide with an amine.
These bichromophoric compositions find particular utility as ultraviolet stabilizers in organic compositions requiring ultraviolet stability. Such compositions include polymeric compositions such as, for example, polyester fiber and moldingcompositions, poly-alpha-olefins, polyamides, acrylics, cellulose esters and the like, as well as molded or shaped articles, film and coatings formed from such materials and the like. Such compositions also include natural and synthetic rubbers, such asnatural rubber, as well as organic materials such as oils, fats, and unsaturated organic materials and materials having such materials contained therein such as paints, varnishes, cosmetics and the like.
The invention has been described in detail with particular reference to preferred embodiments thereof, but it will be understood that variations and modifications can be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention.