Lines with other classes and within this class
(A) Listed below are rules to be followed in placing patents
into and in determining the appropriate subclasses to be searched
in Class 525.
(1) ETHYLENIC POLYMERS — The following rules are
applicable to subclasses 55-388.
(a) When a polymer derived from ethylenic reactants only is
not specified as a liquid or terms which are generally regarded
as indicating a liquid (e.g., wax, waxy, etc.) it will be regarded
as being a solid (e.g., polyethylene, polystyrene, etc.).
(b) Products are classified on the basis of their preparation.
A product identified by a structure is to be placed with the process
of its preparation; for instance, a product identified, as illustrated
below, and which product from the disclosures is prepared by the
reaction of polyacryloamide and formaldehyde is classified on the
basis of polyacryloamide reacted with formaldehyde in a case involving
rubber (e.g., halogenated, etc.) classification is on the basis
of a solid polymer derived from isoprene.
(c) All subclasses are based on a process of mixing. Products,
per se, therefore are classified on the basis of the process of
(d) All solid polymers (subclasses 191+) are classified on
the basis of the initial solid polymer derived from ethylenic reactants
(e.g., a mixture of a halogenated polybutadiene and polyethylene
is classified as an original in subclass 232 rather than as a halogen
containing reactant, for example, in subclass 213).
(e) A process of halogenating polybutadiene and subsequently
blending same with polyethylene is classified as in (D) above.
(f) In those subclasses which require the combination of two
or more reactants (e.g., subclass 165 or subclass 178, etc.) the
two reactants need not be added simultaneously to the ethylenic
polymer, nor need they be reacted together prior to addition with
the ethylenic polymer. They may be added subsequently, or there may
be an intermediate reactant which is not, per se, the type required
in these subclasses (e.g., other than amine, polycarboxylic acid,
polyol, etc.). However, if the intermediate reactant is provided
higher in the schedule (e.g., isocyanate, polyepoxide) it is classified
in the higher provided subclass, etc.
(g) Compositions which have been admixed and are not in a
reacted state are classified on the basis of the reactants in the
(h) The following rules apply to subclasses 100+,
107+, 123+, 132+, 153, 154+,
165+, and 178+. Each of the above subclasses
(i) The reaction of an ethylenic polymer and a saturated reactant
required by that subclass or polymer thereof (e.g., aldehyde, phenols,
(ii) The physical blend of an ethylenic polymer and a solid
polymer derived from a saturated reactant required by that subclass.
(iii) The physical blend of an ethylenic polymer and a solid
polymer derived from at least one ethylenic reactant required by
that subclass and at least one saturated coreactant.
(iv) The mixture of an ethylenically unsaturated polymer and
a specified intermediate condensation product, specified polymer
forming ingredients, or solid polymer thereof, which is other than
solely derived from ethylenic materials and wherein an ingredient
required by that subclass is ethylenic and is part of the specified intermediate
condensation product, specified polymer forming ingredient system,
or solid polymer; or wherein the material required by that subclass
is ethylenic and is in addition to a solid polymer, polymer forming
ingredient system, or intermediate condensation containing at least
one saturated reactant.
(v) Excluded from these subclasses are those processes or
products wherein an ethylenic polymer is admixed with ethylenic
material (e.g., polyacrolein or acrolein) only or polymers thereof.
(vi) Included herein are those situations wherein a treatment
is effected on a polymer with part of a specified polymer forming
ingredient system and in which a later reactant is added which forms
a specified polymer-forming ingredient system therewith. The ehtylenic reactant
which is required by that subclass can be part of the polymer-forming
ingredient system or it may be part of the specified intermediate
(2) CONDENSATES - PROCESSES: The following rules are applicable
to subclasses 389-540.
(a) Processes of preparing products are classified with the
product in the absence of any specified process subclass.
(b) Processes of treating a previously treated product are classified
on the basis of the original solid polymer originally formed, e.g.,
treating a starting halogenated polyamide with an epoxy is classified
as an original in the first appearing subclass of the schedule that
provides for treating a polyamide with a halogen or epoxy, etc.
If the process of preparing the starting materials is not claimed
and the claimed step is provided in a lower subclass than the process
if claimed of preparing the starting material, then a cross-reference
into the claimed process is appropriate, e.g., Schedule reads as
. treating with halogen
. treating with epoxy
Halogenated polyamide is treated with an epoxy. The original
is placed into the halogen subclass and should be cross-referenced
into the epoxy subclass. If, however, the steps of halogenating
and epoxidizing are claimed, the original is placed into the halogenating
subclass and a cross-reference into the epoxy subclass is deemed
to be optional.
(c) When a condensate polymer is not specified as a solid
or identified by properties which identify it as a solid e.g., melting
point, etc., then it is considered a liquid and as such is treated
as a reactant.
(d) When a condensate polymer is noted in generic terms or
is identified by a trade name or manufacturer, it is to be regarded
polyester = reaction product of a saturated dicarboxylic acid
or derivative and ethylene glycol.
polyamide = reaction product of a saturated dicarboxylic
acid or derivative and a diamine.
polyamide = identified as a nylon 6 is the reaction
product of a caprolactam.
polyphenyleneoxide = reaction product of a monohydric phenol.
polyarylene sulfide = polyphenylene sulfide reaction product
of an alkali metal sulfide reactant and a halogenated aromatic reactant.
polyoxymethylene = formaldehyde polymer.
polycarbonate = reaction product of halhal or
OO and a dihydric aromatic dialcohol.
polyurethane = reaction product of R-(N=C=X)2(X
is chalcogen) and ethylene glycol.
polyurea = reaction product of R-(N=C=X)2(X
is chalcogen) and a diamine.
novalac = reaction product of formaldehyde and a monohydric
resole = reaction product of formaldehyde and a monohydric
aminoplast = reaction product of formaldehyde and
phenoplast = reaction product of formaldehyde and
a monohydric phenol.
(e) In a multistep process of treating a polymer the first appearing
step of treating in the schedule array provides for the original
polyamide treated sequentially with X, Y, and Z
. treating with y
. treating with z
. treating with x
The original with Y, which is the first appearing subclass
(f) In those processes wherein two reactants are required to
treat a solid polymer material (e.g., polyamide treated with a polyol
and a polycarboxylic acid, the polyol and carboxylic acid can be
added concurrently, sequentially, or even an intermittent step of
adding material between the addition of the polyol and polycarboxylic
acid may be involved).
(g)(i) In a multistep process wherein materials are reacted
together and an intermediate solid polymer is formed which is subsequently
reacted, all of the materials recited up to the step of preparing
the intermediate solid polymer are regarded as reactants in preparing
a solid polymer, and all materials which are reacted with the intermediate
solid polymer are regarded as treating agents.
A + BC (no identity recited) to solid
C + D[E] Intermediate solid polymer [E] hal" hal [E]
(ii) Reactants to prepare intermediate solid polymer are A,
B, and D.
A + BC (no identity recited as to solid nature)
C + DE D is a solid polymer higher in schedule array than
(C) if it were a solid polymer, therefore classified as original
(iii) A + BC (no identity as to solid nature)
C + DE D is a solid polymer lower in the schedule
array than C if C was solid.
Classified as original with (D) and cross-referenced to (C).
In this situation (C) is regarded for cross-referencing purposes
as if it were a solid.
(h) A process of preparing a reactable composition is classified
on the basis of the reactants involved in preparing the composition.
(3) PRODUCTS - CONDENSATES
(a) All products must be classified on the basis of their preparation
as indicated by the disclosure.
(b) When products are to be classified all rules to processes
described hereinbefore are applicable.
(c) A method of preparing a polymerizable composition is classified
as a process on the basis of the reactants recited in preparing
the polymerizable composition.
(4) ETHYLENIC OR CONDENSATION POLYMERS For purposes of classification:
(a) A solid polymer is always considered as being a reactant.
(b) A solid polymer is always classified on the reactants utilized
in its preparation, e.g., natural rubber is classified as based
(c) In this class once the solid polymer is identified, all modifications
thereof are included in the indents thereunder "specified
as mixed". For instance, mixing a solid polyphenylene oxide
with a silicon modified polyester is classified in subclass 393.
Subclass 393 provides for processes starting with or treating a
solid polyphenylene oxide with a silicon containing reactant and
subsequently admixing same with a silicon or nonsilicon containing
polyester, or for processes of admixing a solid polyphe
nylene oxide with a silicon containing polyester, or treating
a mixture of a solid polyphenylene oxide and polyester with a silicon
(d) Processes wherein two or more reactants (ethylenic or
nonethylenic) are reacted at preferential conditions so that one
reactant forms a solid polymer while the other reactant is substantially
unchanged and which other reactant is then subsequentially reacted
with the formed solid polymer are classified in Class 526, 527,
or 528. When, however, such a product is admixed with an additional
solid polymer, specified polymer forming ingredients, or with a
specified intermediate condensation product it is proper for this
class (525). When the product is derived from ethylenic monomers
only and is identified as a block or graft polymer and is subsequently
admixed with an additional solid polymer, specified intermediate
condensation product, or specified polymer forming ingredients,
it is classified in this class (525) as if it were a block or graft
copolymer. When the patentee discloses that a polymeric mixture
is prepared by the interpolymerization of two or more reactants,
A + B polymer, AB + polymer A, etc., such a product
or process is proper in Classes 526, 527, or 528.
(e) Aftertreatment of a solid inorganic polymer with an organic
compound to form an organic group containing polymer is proper in
Class 526, 527, or 528. To be proper for this class (525) a solid
organic polymer must be chemically treated.
(f) Patents in subclasses 192-196, 337, 338, and 503-508 which
recite "chemical treating agent" are classified
(i) A "chemical treating agent" for purposes
of this class is a chemical material which is added to the formed polymer
and which causes or is present during a process wherein a change
in a bond of the polymer is effected.
(ii) These subclasses provide for all chemical aftertreatments
of a previously formed polymer derived from only ethylenic monomers
when such aftertreatments are performed in the presence of a chemical
agent, including treatments that are performed with chemical agents that
are not specific as to identity or amount of the chemical agent,
with the exception of mere reference to cross-linking, curing, or
(iii) Claims are classified in these subclasses on the basis
of the first-appearing material utilized as part of the chemical
agent. No attempt has been made to classify on the basis of the
chemically active material and therefore all materials in a composition
are regarded equally (e.g., diluent, reactant, catalyst, etc.).
(iv) Claims to a composition or method of preparing (e.g.,
polymer plus a chemical reactive material) are classified as if
they were process claims and as if the actual process has gone to
(g) This class (525) includes processes of preparing solid
polymers or resinifiable intermediate condensation products from
a mixture of reactants wherein one of the initial reactants is used
in an excessive amount with the expressed purpose of being used
in a subsequent step to form with an added reactant a specified
polymer-forming mixture. The original reaction mixture must produce a
solid polymer or resinifiable intermediate condensation product
and the process must recite the addition of the added reactant which,
together with the excess of original reactant, forms the specified
(B) Listed below are lines between particular Clas 525 subclasses
and other areas (e.g., other Class 525 areas or other Classes).
(1) Lines relative to subclases 192+
A chemical agent is a material which can react with the polymer
to cause a modification in the polymer"s chemical structure.
Proper for this subclass would be, e.g., chemical reactions as
halogenation, sulfonation, nitration, vulcanization, etc. Additionally,
the treating agent if an ethylenic reactant, may preferentially
homo- or copolymerize with other reactants to produce additional polymers.
A patent which claims both product and process for producing a polymeric
mixture containing a graft copolymer starting with two ethylenically
derived polymers and an ethylenic reactant, requires that the original
be classified Class 525 subclasses 192+ and should be crossed
into the graft copolymer subclasses 63+. See Class 523,
subclasses 1+ for a mixture of polymers with nonpolymeric
material whose only purpose is, e.g., to enhance processibility
of the polymers, stabilize against deterioration or aid deterioration
after a given time (prodegradant), or act as a nucleating or crystallizing
agent, etc. Search Class 528, subclasses 480+ for the treating
of polymeric mixture in order to destroy residual catalyst or remove
or neutralizimpurities. However, the neutralization of a polymeric
salt with an acid or base is classified here. Included here also
are processes wherein one or more polymers are chemically aftertreated
and subsequently blended with themselves or with other polymers.
(2) Lines relative to subclases 242+
Subclass 242+ and indented subclasses also contain polymers
prepared from a combination of ethylenic reactants mixed with nonethylenic
reactants when reacted in the presence of ethylenically polymerized polymers,
e.g., ethylene-ethylene oxide copolymer, propylene-sulfur dioxide
copolymer. However, for the process of mixing such polymers see
this class, subclass 185. Product claims are classified on the
basis of ethylenic reactants either in the polymerized or unpolymerized
state and cross-referenced to the nonethylenic reactant as being
specified materials in this class, subclasses 244+. Process
claims, of course, are classified according to claimed specified
materials and, if lacking, then they are classified on the basis
of the product.
(3) Lines relative to subclases 267
This subclass excludes the presence of a preformed polymer
derived from ethylenic reactants only. This subclass is to be clearly
distinguished from subclass 244 wherein the solid polymer, whether
or not prepared in situ, is contacted both by an ethylenic reactant
and a specified material. In the present subclasses the in situ prepared
polymer is contacted with an ethylenic reactant. Typically, the
polymer is not isolated or purified but is further reacted with
an ethylenic reactant. For example, styrene is contacted with lithium
butyl catalyst which results in formation of lithium terminated
polystyrene block. The in situ-prepared polymer is then reacted
with butadiene to produce polybutadiene-polystyrene block copolymer.
(4) Lines relative to subclases 326.1 through 388
(a) The following rules apply in classifying a claim into this
area of the Class 525 schedule:
(i) For purposes of clarification in this part of the schedule,
subclasses 326.1 to 334.1 are deemed to be chemically modified product
subclasses; and subclasses 337 to 388 are deemed to be chemical
modification process subclasses.
(ii) Patents that claim a chemically treated product and process,
wherein both the product and the process are specifically provided
for in the schedule, are classified in the product area (326.1 to
334.1) and cross referenced to the process area (337 to 388).
(iii) Patents that claim both a product (326.1 to 334.1) and
a provided for process (337 to 388) and wherein the product is claimed
in process terms are classified on the basis of the product (326.1
to 334.1) and cross-referenced to the process (337 to 388) on the
basis of the chemical treating agent first appearing in the classification
(iv) Patents that claim a chemically modified product solely
in process terms are classified on the basis of the product (326.1
to 334.1) and are desireably cross-referenced to the process (337
to 388) on the basis of the chemical treating agent first appearing
in the classification hierarchy.
(v) Patents that claim nominally vulcanized, cured, or crosslinked
solid polymers from ethylenic monomers only, (or nominal process
claims directed to vulcanizing, curing or cross-linking) are classified
as polymers as appropriate in Class 526; see also Class 526, subclass 72
(1) Note (A8).
(vi) Patents that claim vulcanized, cured or cross-linked solid
polymers from ethylenic monomers only, wherein the vulcanizing,
curing or cross-linking agent is identified by an atom (e.g., sulfur
containing vulcanizing agent, etc.), by an amount (e.g., cured using
2% by weight of a vulcanizing agent, etc.) or by a significant process
step (e.g., cured by heating to a specific temperature in presence
of a vulcanizing agent, etc.) are classified as chemically modified
products (326.1 to 334.1).
(b) Claims to an aftertreated product are classified on the
basis of the initial monomers or monomers that are polymerized;
except where certain chemical modifications or chemical treating
agents are specifically provided for as an indented subclass under
a monomer. In certain cases this determination is made from the
disclosure. An example of such a situation is a treated halogenated
polyethylene wherein the disclosure recites halogenation of a previously
formed polyethylene polymer. In this case, classification is made
on the basis of polyethylene rather than on halogenated polyethylene.
(c) Vulcanizable compositions are not subject matter for this
subclass unless prior to the vulcanization or cross-linking step
there is present a chemically modified solid polymer derived from
ethylenic monomers only.
(d) The final product need not contain an atom of the chemical
treating agent employed. For example, polyvinyl chloride which has
been treated with a dehalogenating agent, is classified in subclass
(e) Examples of patent placement within this and the indented
subclasses. Patentee claims:
(i) Polyethlyene which has been chlorosulfonated by treatment
with SO2 and CL2 at elevated
temperature and pressure. There are also claims directed to this
process of chlorosulfonation of polyethylene. The original classification
is in subclass 333.9 with a mandatory cross-reference to subclass
344. This represents an inversion of the classification rule and
process versus product in hierarchy of class 526.
(ii) A vulcanizable polyethylene composition comprising a
mixture of polyethylene and zinc oxide as vulcanizing agent. The
original classification is with the process subclass 373 since this
product claim does not encompass a chemically modified solid polymer.
(iii) A vulcanizable chlorosulfonated polyethylene composition
comprising a mixture of chlorosulfonated polyethylene and zinc oxide
as vulcanizing agent. Disclosure states that the chlorosulfonated
polyethylene is prepared by modification of previously formed solid
polyethylene. The original classification of this product is in
subclass 333.9 since the product claim encompasses a chemically
modified solid polymer, i.e., chlorosulfonated polyethylene.
(5) Lines relative to subclases 501.5
Class 525, subclass 501.5 provides for, e.g., mixtures of phenol-formaldehyde
resin (SICP) with an ethylenic agent such as an unsaturated fatty
acid glyceride or unsaturated fatty acid derived therefrom, e.g.,
linseed oil or linseed fatty acid, etc. However, a phenolic SICP (not
described as a solid polymer) admixed with a saturated fatty glyceride
or saturated fatty acid, e.g., coconut oil or coconut fatty acids,
etc., is classified in Class 528, subclass 158.5, since Class 525,
subclasses 50+ do not encompass an admixture of a liquid
SICP with a chemical treating agent; therefore, when saturated fatty
glycerides or saturated fatty acid derived therefrom are reactants
in the system of this subclass there must additionally be present
a complete system for Class 525, subclass 480.
(6) Lines relative to subclases 517.5
Class 525, subclass 517.5 provides for mixtures of SICP (e.g.,
aminoplast resin, etc.) with an ethylenic agent such as unsaturated
fatty acid glycerides or unsaturated fatty acids derived therefrom,
e.g., linseed oil or linseed fatty acid, etc. However, an aminoplast
SICP (not described as a solid polymer) admixed with a saturated fatty
glyceride or saturated fatty acid, e.g., coconut oil or coconut
fatty acid, etc., is placed in Class 528, subclass 245.5 since Class
525, subclasses 50+ do not encompass an admixture of a
liquid SICP with a chemical treating agent; therefore, when saturated
fatty glycerides or saturated fatty acid derived therefrom are reactants
in the system of this subclass there must additionally be a complete
system for Class 525, subclass 509.