Lines with other classes and within this class
B. CONVERSION SYSTEMS HAVING PLURAL INPUT AND/OR PLURAL OUTPUT CIRCUITS
1. What This Class Excludes:
This class excludes systems having a plurality of either electrical source (input) circuits (see below with reference to polyphase systems) or output circuits. Where the system including the plurality of input and/or output comprises or is part of an art device, classification is with the art device. For other such systems, see References to Other Classes, below.
2. Alternate Input or Load Systems
If the system can operate with only one input and one output circuit at a time, even though there might be an alternate input or output circuit, classification is in this class (363). If the system contemplates that more than one input or output circuit will be used concurrently at any time, the system is excluded from this class and pointed out in 1 above. Also, see 3 below, with reference to polyphase systems.
3. Polyphase Systems
Although this class excludes systems having a plurality of input or output circuits, systems wherein the input circuit or the output circuit is a single polyphase circuit are considered to be systems having a single input or output circuit and are included in this class.
a. A single polyphase circuit is defined as a polyphase circuit which either does not have significantly different sources or significantly different load devices or load circuits for its several phases.
b. Plural Single Phase Sources To Make Polyphase:
Systems wherein a plurality of single phase sources are combined to produce a single polyphase output are excluded from this class. See References to Other Classes, below.
c. Polyphase From Single Phase:
This class includes systems having a single phase source circuit where phase converter means are used to produce a polyphase output. Where impedances are used for this purpose, see Subclass References to the Current Class, below.
C. CONVERSION SYSTEMS NOT INCLUDED IN THIS CLASS
1. The conversion systems not included in this class for the most part relate to the communications arts. They include such converters as oscillators, modulators, demodulators, detectors, amplifiers, repeaters, filters, pulsing systems, wave transmission systems, etc. Many of these excluded systems, such as modulators, amplifiers, detectors, include means to control an electric current or potential of one character, such as direct or alternating current, by means of a control signal so as to produce a current or potential of another character. For example, in an amplifier system using an electronic tube with a source of direct current connected to the anode, the alternating current in the grid circuit controls the electronic tube so that the flow of direct current is varied to produce a pulsating current in the output. Also in some of these systems, such as some types of detectors, alternating current modulated by a signal is passed through a rectifying system so as to produce in the output circuit a pulsating direct current representative of the signal. For the lines between some of the excluded systems and this class, see the following sections. Also, for a partial list of such converters and their classification, see "Related Art" below.
It is common practice in the communications arts to refer to a signal or control circuit as an "input" circuit and the claims might recite "-- --conversion of one frequency to another" where the first frequency is in fact only a signal or control for controlling another electrical source circuit which is the source of energy for producing the second frequency. In this class, the input circuit is the circuit to which the energy is applied which is to appear in the output circuit.
Systems which include Electricity-Heat-Electricity Conversion are classified elsewhere. Lines and Networks which include frequency conversion are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes below.
2. Pulse Forming Circuits:
Systems designed to produce a plurality of discrete pulses similar to the pulses used in radar systems by conversion of electrical energy will be found in a number of other classes. Some of these classes are found in References to Other Classes, below.
3. Amplifiers in Class 330, and the Conversion Systems of This Class (363):
Systems which are designed to control a local source of energy by means of a control wave so as to produce an output which is either an enlarged, diminished or identical copy of the control wave of the type used in communication systems are classified as amplifiers in Class 330. In such systems, the control wave is not the source of power for the system.
4. Oscillators In Class 331 and Conversion Systems Of This Class (363):
a. Converting Direct to Alternating Current:
Converters for converting direct to alternating current wherein the system is self-controlled are classified in Class 331, except in those cases wherein the control involves circuit making and breaking, or wherein a resistor is mechanically varied. Where the system is such that conversion may be either way, i.e., A.C. to D.C. or D.C. to A.C. classification is in this class (363). In those cases wherein the conversion is A.C. to D.C. classification is in this class (363). The usual art in Class 331, will have a tuned circuit for determining the frequency of the resulting alternating current. However, the art in Class 331 also includes oscillators using resistance-inductance and resistance-capacity circuits (e.g., relaxation oscillators) which are self-controlled. Some of the oscillation generators in Class 331 are designed to produce pulse waves. Also, see the reference to Class 315 in References to Other Classes, below, for a reference to the systems closely analogous to oscillation generators in Class 315.
b. Oscillators with Alternating Power Supply:
Self-controlled oscillatory circuits which have an alternating current source of supply are classified as oscillation generators elsewhere. See References to Other Classes, below.
c. Oscillators with Rectifier in Output Circuit:
Where the output of an oscillator is rectified, the overall system is a conversion system for this class (363). See Subclass References to the Current Class, below.
5. Harmonic Generators, Frequency Multipliers in Class 327 and Class 331:
Systems designed to produce an output alternating current of a frequency (f1), from an alternating current having a frequency (f2) may be used as frequency multipliers or frequency dividers. In event the output frequency had definite harmonic relation to the frequency (f1), (f1 is a multiple of f2) the system is a harmonic generator. Where the output frequency is a submultiple of the frequency (f1) the system is a frequency divider. Included as multiples are fractions such as three-halves and as submultiples are fractions such as two-thirds.
If the system includes an electronic tube of type having a control means (e.g., grid) as the converting means and the source of power (e.g., anode supply) is A.C. or D.C. and the frequency of the output circuit is a multiple of the frequency applied to the control circuit, classification is elsewhere; for cascaded oscillator systems of the frequency multiplying type, and for oscillators combined with output coupling networks of the harmonic, producing or selecting type classification is also elsewhere. If the frequency of the output circuit in such electronic tube systems is a submultiple of the frequency applied to the control circuit, classification is elsewhere. Miscellaneous nonlinear active device frequency control circuits (including mixers and multipliers) having a configuration other than a single source coupled to a single electrical load are classified elsewhere.
If there is no definite relation as above set forth, then the system is excluded from Class 331, and will be found in this class. To be classified in Class 331 as a frequency multiplier or divider the system must contain a local source of energy or signal for controlling the output frequency. Where the system is not self-controlled and the source circuit is supplied with energy having a frequency (f2) other than the output energy and is the same energy as the input energy, and has a frequency relation to the source energy, which is determined by the frequency of the source circuit, classification is in class (363), regardless of the magnitudes of the frequencies or the proposed use of the system. Also, included in Class 363 are frequency multipliers and dividers which are not otherwise classified, such as motor-generator systems where the motor is supplied by a frequency(f2) and the output circuit of the generator has a frequency (f2).
6. Demodulators in Class 329, Demodulators and The Conversion Systems of This Class (363):
Class 329 provides for both the structure of devices used by demodulating and for the demodulating systems. Included in these subclasses are systems using a rectifying means designed to rectify a signal modulated wave so as to produce in the output circuit a pulsating direct current representative of the signal, and electronic tube systems where a modulated wave is impressed upon the control means (e.g., grid) of the tube so as to control the output to produce a wave representative of the signal.
7. The Gas Or Vapor Tube Systems In Class 315, Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices, Systems and the Conversion Systems in This Class (363):
Class 315 contains many systems which are closely analogous to the systems in this class. Class 315 provides for electrical systems for supplying electric current and/or potential to one or more electronic tubes of the gas or vapor type. Many of these systems inherently convert A.C. to D.C. or D.C. to A.C. Some are inherently oscillation generators. Where the system is limited by claimed subject matter to supplying a load circuit, it is excluded from Class 315. Merely claiming the circuit necessary to connect the anode to the cathode as a load circuit is not sufficient to exclude the system from Class 315. Claiming a load device, either specifically or broadly in the output circuit will exclude the system from Class 315. Claiming subject matter which would not be provided unless the system were to be used for supplying a load device is sufficient to exclude the system from Class 315. For example, reciting means in the output circuit responsive to overload conditions in output circuit to control the system will exclude the system from Class 315.
Particular attention is called to the following subclasses which are fields of search for gas or vapor-type systems which inherently convert A.C. to D.C. or D.C. to A.C: Subclasses where the system includes means to substitute one electronic tube for another when the electronic tube becomes inoperative by reason of some defect or failure to operate properly; subclasses where the system includes a signal indicator or alarm for indicating some condition of the system; and subclasses where the phase shifting means to control the current or potential applied to the control (grid circuit). See the Class 315 reference Search Class note below, referencing this section.
a. A.C. to D.C. In many of the systems in Class 315, the electronic tube is an asymmetrical device, and operates to pass electric current in one direction only between the electrodes. Merely naming the device as a rectifier or derectifier is not sufficient to exclude the system from Class 315, unless some subject matter is claimed which limits the system to the rectifying or derectifying art. Accordingly, a search for such systems where control of the rectifying or derectifying tube is the significant factor should include Class 315.
See the Class 315 Search Class reference below for the art subclasses referred to in the sections above, and also note there the references to subclasses where polyphase current is supplied to the tube or tubes (note where single phase is changed to polyphase which is applied to the tube to tubes); and subclasses where alternating current is supplied to one or more tubes.
b. D.C. to A.C. Many systems using electric lamps of the gaseous or vapor discharge type inherently generate oscillations during operation. Class 315 therefore, provides for all systems for merely supplying electric current and/or potential to gaseous or vapor discharge devices whether the system is claimed as an oscillation generator or merely as a lamp circuit, provided that the system is not limited by claimed subject matter to use as an oscillation generator, such as, for example, means to transfer the oscillating electric energy to another circuit or means to use the oscillating energy.
Also, Class 315 includes systems which do not inherently generate oscillations but which do inherently convert D.C. to A.C. The subclass areas referred to in the general Section of 7. above, and also note Class 315 subclasses for systems having a condenser in the supply circuit. Many of the systems include relaxation circuits (L-C R-C). Note especially subclasses where the condenser is connected in shunt to the tube so as to supply pulses of energy to the tube. In subclass 229 will be found plural tube systems having a commutating condenser where the system inherently converts D.C. to A.C. Similar systems using tubes with a plurality of anodes or cathodes with a commutating condenser are in Class 315.
Class 315 provides for miscellaneous systems for sequentially starting a plurality of gas or vapor tubes. So-called ring circuits are an example of such systems. The search should extend for any particular type of system to the appropriate subclass.
8. Motor Generator Systems in Class 322, Electricity, Single Generator Systems:
Class 322 provides for motor-generator set systems wherein there is no significant relationship between the characteristics of the electrical energy supplied to the motor and the characteristics of the electrical energy supplied to the output circuit by the generator.
Class 363 provides for those motor-generator set systems wherein there is a significant relationship between the characteristics of the electrical energy supplied to the motor and the characteristics of the electrical energy supplied to the output circuit by the generator (e.g., f1 to f2 or phase1 to phase2).
9. Modulators in Class 332, Modulators and the Conversion Systems in This Class (363):
Class 332 includes conversion systems, such as pulse forming systems, D.C. to A.C. systems, frequency conversion systems where the purpose of the system is to produce a repetitious wave which has one of its characteristics (frequency, shape, phase) varied in accordance with an intelligence which continuously varies in an arbitrary manner. An example of an arbitrary continuously varying intelligence is speech. Examples of the waves produced by these systems are modulated pulse waves, frequency modulated carrier waves. Oscillation generators which are modulated by an intelligence are included in Class 332.
D. LINE BETWEEN CLASS 363 AND CLASS 323, ELECTRICITY, POWER SUPPLY OR REGULATION SYSTEMS
Class 323 is restricted to those systems wherein only the magnitude of the current or voltage and/or the magnitude of the phase angle relationship are controlled, varied, or regulated. Class 323 excludes all systems wherein a conversion step is performed on the energy going through the system.
Class 363 provides for systems for converting input electrical energy into output electrical energy whose characteristics are different from those of the input electrical energy. A Class 363 conversion system may include as a subcombination thereof a voltage magnitude and/or phase control system such as might be classified, per se, in Class 323.
E. SYSTEMS NOT INCLUDED IN THIS CLASS
a. Wave Shaping:
Mere wave shaping systems where the electrical energy is not converted into a different character (e.g., from A.C. to D.C. or vice versa), or where there is no phase or frequency conversion are not included in this class. For example, networks consisting of passive elements, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductances, which function to alter the shape of the wave (e.g., to convert a sine wave to a square wave) and which do not involve current, phase or frequency conversion means are excluded from Class 363. Also excluded are systems such as electronic tube systems and saturable reactor systems where a source of energy (e.g., the anode supply in the case of an electronic tube system) is controlled by a control signal so as to produce a wave having a particular shape, the shape having a definite relation to the control wave.
See the Search Class notes below for classifications for appropriate waveform or wave shape determinative or pulse producing systems and for miscellaneous nonlinear active device converting, shaping or generating circuits wherein a single electrical source is not coupled to a single electrical load.
Also see the Search Class notes below for differentiating and integrating networks of the passive type, and for wave shaping networks of the passive type in general.
Filter network which are designed to transmit freely, electrical energy of a particular frequency or range of frequencies while to attenuate substantially electrical energy of another frequency or range of frequencies are found elsewhere. See References to OTher Classes, below, for Lines and Networks which include frequency conversion.
c. Wave Transmission Systems:
Wave transmission systems wherein wave shaping occurs for facilitating transmission or correcting for distortion of electrical waves are provided for elsewhere. See References to Other Classes below referencing this section.
F. CONVERTER STRUCTURE
This class provides for the electrical system as distinguished from the structure of the device which may be used in or as part of the system. For the structure of such converting devices, see References to Other Classes, below.
The following SEARCH CLASS references contain art related to main subject matter of this class (363). The parenthetical references at the end of SEARCH CLASS note indicate the topical subject area.
See References To Other Classes below for the following related art areas.
Battery Charging Systems
Condenser Charging Systems
Consumable Electrode Systems
Current Magnitude Control Systems
Electric Communication Systems
Electric Measuring Systems
Electric Space Discharge Devices
Electronic Tube Structure
Electronic Tube Systems
Harmonic Generator Systems
Heating Systems, Electric
Phase Control Systems
Plural Input and/or Output Systems
Railroad Locomotives, Electric
Rectifier Element Structure
Rotary Converter Structure
Surgery: Electrical applications
Thermocouples or Thermal Batteries
Voltage Magnitude Control Systems
Wave MOde Converters
Wave Transmission Systems
X-Ray Systems Supplied By Rectifiers