Lines with other classes and within this class
GENERIC OR NORMALLY RECITED ELECTRIC MOTOR.
1. Generic Motor System With Disclosed But Not Claimed Electric Motor.
Motor systems where the disclosure states that any one of a plurality of motors may be used in the system, one of which is an electric motor and another is a non-electric motor, and there is no claim limiting the system to having a non-electric motor, are classified in this class (318).
Where the system includes two or more motors, see Electric Motor Combined With Other Driving Means.
2. Motor Recited By Name Only
The mere inclusion of the electric motor by name only (e.g., an "electric motor") as an element of the combination is sufficient basis for classification in this Class. That is, no details of structure of the motor or no details of relationship between the motor and the system of supply and/or control--other than merely being connected so as to be supplied and/or controlled by the system--are necessary.
Where, however, the electric motor is not specifically claimed as such, but is claimed only broadly as "a load device", an "electric translating device", "a power consuming device", or any other general load device expression which does not necessitate that the load device be an electric motor, classification is not in this class, but in some other appropriate class which provides for the electric system, per se. This is true even if the only disclosed load or controlled device is an electric motor. However, where the load or controlled device is disclosed as an electric motor but is claimed in general terms and an operating characteristic is significantly ascribed to such device which characteristic (e.g., speed, revolutions, limit-of-travel), is substantially only associated with electric motor, classification will be in this class on the assumption that an electric motor is in fact claimed. Likewise, where characteristic parts of an electric motor are recited classification is herein even though the expression "electric motor" or its equivalent is not literally present in the claims.
MOTOR AS ULTIMATE LOAD DEVICE (FOLLOW-UP SYSTEMS)
The fact that the electric motor is the ultimate load device of the system or that it is the ultimate device being controlled may not always be apparent from the language of the claims. For example, an arrangement wherein means responsive to a condition (such as motor speed) of the motor is provided to actuate motor control or supply means to control the motor is a motor system.
Applying this to a "follow-up" type of motor control wherein a motor is started, stopped and reversed in response to a condition of unbalance of an electrical network and wherein the operation of the motor also rebalances the network, the arrangement is a motor system since the network and its rebalance constitutes the control for the motor.
However, if the above motor drives a specific load device provided for in another class then the patent is excluded from this class. For example, if the above motor drives an indicator for indicating the voltage of a system to which the network is connected, the overall arrangement is a voltage measuring system classified in Class 324. Similarly if the above motor drives a rheostat which regulates the voltage of a generator, the combination is a generation system classified in Class 322.
LOAD DEVICE DRIVEN BY THE MOTOR (INCLUDING POWER, MOTION, FORCE, OR TORQUE TRANSMITTING DEVICES)
1. This class provides for systems of electric supply and/or control for electric motors in combination with load devices driven by the motor when such combination is not provided for in other classes. The definition of, and/or the patents in, the several art classes which provide for the combination of particular load devices and the motive power means therefor will determine the lines that exist between the several classes and this class. Consequently, the lines as thus determined may be different for different classes.
2. Motor Driven Device Not Significantly Claimed.
In general, however, this class provides for electric systems of supply and/or control for electric motors in combination with the load device driven thereby where the load device is claimed so broadly that it has no particular significance in the system as claimed other than a mere load device. Thus the combination of an electric motor system and a load device driven by the motor wherein the load device is recited in general terms only (such as, for example, "a load device", a "Variable load", a "highly fluctuating load", "means actuated by the motor", a "Gradually increasing load", etc.) or in specific terms, but by name only (such for example, as a "vehicle", an "airplane", a "rolling mill", "grinding rolls", "gearing". etc.) and wherein no details of the structure of the specific load device or no details of relationship between the motor system and the specific load device, other than that merely necessary broadly to locate the motor or to constitute a support for the motor or to merely connect the motor to the load device, are set forth, is classified in this class.
3. Motor Driven Device Significantly Claimed
This class, also provides for the combination of an electric motor system in combination with specific load devices wherein details of structure of the specific load device or details of relationship between the motor system and the specific load device are set forth only when no provision is made for such combination in any other class.
4. Plural Motor Driven Devices
Where two or more motor driven load devices are claimed, classification will be in some other class. For example only, in electric welding apparatus, the combination of electric motor actuating welding electrodes and a fan directed to cause air to circulate around the electrodes, which fan is actuated by another electric motor, classification is in the art which provides for such combinations; namely, Class 219. If no other class provides for the combination of the specific plural motor driven load devices, classification will be in an appropriate subclass in Class 318 depending on whether or not one or more of the load devices are significantly claimed. See Classification of Motor Driven Load Devices in this class, below. However, note that subclass 39 of Class 318 provides for work and feed or indexing combinations, that is, motor systems having two motors, one motor driving the work and tool with respect to each other, and the other motor driving the means for positioning or feeding the tool with respect to the work.
5. Classification Of Motor Driven Load Devices In This Class
The combination of a motor system and a load device driven thereby where the load device is claimed broadly (by name only) is classified in this class on the basis of the motor system and not on the basis of the combination of the motor system and the load device.
The combination of a motor system and a specific load device which is classified in this class (see Motor Driven Device Significantly Claimed above), is classified in this class on the basis of the combination in subclasses 3+. See the reference to Motor Driven Power, Force or Torque Transmitting Devices below.
6. Motor Systems And Power, Motion, Force Or Torque Transmitting Devices Driven Thereby.
The applications of Load Device Driven by the Motor above, with respect to a motor system where the motor drives a clutch or gearing is as follows:
(a) Clutches. An electric motor system where the motor drives or actuates a clutch is not classified in this class (318) when (a) details of structure of the clutch, (b) details of relationship between the motor (or the electrical system therefor) and the clutch (or its control means) other than a mere driving or connecting relationship, or (c) operating or control means for the clutch are set forth. Where, however, the clutch is so broadly claimed (such as by name only) as to merely constitute a load device actuated by the electric motor, classification is in this class. The motor driven clutches excluded from this class (318) are differently classified. Electric or magnetic clutches of the type in which the transmission of force is solely through the agency or medium of a magnetic field of force are classified in Class 310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 92; fluid clutches or fluid drives in which the transmission of force is solely through the agency of a fluid are classifiable in Class 60, subclasses 52+; and mechanical clutches for the main part are classified in Class 192.
(b) The combination of an electric motor system of the type classifiable, per se, in this class (318) with gearing of the type classifiable, per se, in Class 74 (Machine Element or Mechanism) is as follows: Where a gearing arrangement is set forth with or without an electric motor drive means therefor and with control means for the gearing other than the drive means, classification is in Class 74, even though the control means includes an electric motor actuator. Where a significant electric motor system is set forth as the driving means for significant gearing, classification is in this class (318), subclasses 3+, provided no means for controlling the operation of the gearing is claimed. Where a significant electric motor system is set forth as driving means for gearing recited by name only, the gearing is considered to be "load" and classification is in this class (318), the subclass depending on the significant electric motor control or supply set forth.
(c) The combination of an electric motor system of the type classifiable, per se, in this class (318) with a positive stop mechanism of the type classifiable, per se, in Class 192 (Clutches and Power-Stop Control) is as follows: Where an electric motor driven device is combined with a mechanical stop mechanism, and the mechanism stops the drive independently of any motor control or deenergization, even though the stopping of the drive incidentally causes control or deenergization of the motor, classification is in Class 192, Clutches and Power-Stop Control. Where the stopping operation requires control of the motor as well as operation of the stop mechanism classification is in this class (318).
(d) Class 477, Interrelated Power Delivery Controls, Including Engine Control, was formed in 1993 from patents in Classes 74 and 192 relating to interrelated controls between an engine and a transmission, brake, or clutch. Therefore the line between Class 318 and Class 477 is the same as exists between Class 318 and Classes 74 and 192 as set forth in Motor Systems and Power above.
7. Electric Motor Control And/Or Supply System As A Control Means In A More Comprehensive System
Where an electric motor drives or actuates specific means for controlling a specific device, classification will, in general, be in the art relating to the specific controlled device or in the art relating to the specific controlling means. For example, an electric motor control system automatically responsive to the speed of an internal combustion engine combined with means actuated by the electric motor for moving the throttle of the internal combustion engine to maintain the speed of the engine constant would not be classifiable in this Class (318), but would be classifiable in the art relating to throttle control of internal combustion engines.
Where, however, the same motor control system is claimed, per se, (i.e., without being limited to actuating the throttle) classification would be in this class. And this is true even if the motor were controlled in response to the speed of the internal combustion engine, if the motor is not limited to controlling the engine.
8. One Electric Motor Control System Connected To Operate The Controls Or The Supply For Another Electric Motor.
Where one electric motor is disclosed for the purpose of operating some useful load device and has means for controlling the motor, the controlling means including a second electric motor system whose sole purpose is to control the load motor, classification of such combination is in this class (318) on the basis of the control of the (single) load motor and not on the basis of plural motors.
ELECTRIC MOTOR SYSTEMS COMBINED WITH OTHER ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
1. Combined With Adjunctive Or Ancillary Systems.
The combination of an electrical system of supply and/or control for an electric motor of the type classifiable, per se, in this Class with electrical systems for producing some useful effect or result other than supplying and/or controlling the electric motor, which latter systems are subordinate to and operate in conjunction with the motor, the devices driven thereby, and/or the system of supply and/or control for the motor, to perform some effect or result thereupon or to indicate, test, measure, record, calibrate, etc. conditions in (or of) the motor, the devices actuated thereby and/or the system of supply and/or control for the motor, is classified in this class (318).
For example: A system of current, voltage and power-factor measurements connected to measure electrical conditions in various parts of an operative electric motor speed control system is classified in this class (318).
For example: A system for periodically recalibrating a bridge network to cause it to be maintained at some standard operating condition in combination with that bridge network connected to an electric motor so as to control the electric motor, is classified in this class (318).
2. Combined With Coordinate Electrical Systems
The combination of an electrical system of supply and/or control of the type classifiable, per se, in this Class with one or more other electrical systems the function of which other system is to produce or effect a result which is distinct from the motor control or supply system but which may, however, be related to the operation of the motor system so as to cooperate therewith or which may have some portion thereof constituting a portion in common with both systems, is classified in some other appropriate class. See References to Other Classes referencing this section.
For example: A system of supply and control for an electric motor in combination with a communication system for sending signals and messages not restricted to the control and operation of the electric transmission circuit, would not be classifiable in this class (318).
ELECTRIC MOTOR COMBINED WITH OTHER DRIVING MEANS
This class provides for the combination of one or more electric motors operating as driving means with one or more driving means which are not electric motors only when such combination is not elsewhere provide for.
In general, however, plural driving means when all or one more thereof are other than electric motors, are provided for elsewhere.
However, typical of the art not provided for elsewhere and which is included herein, are the combinations of one or more electric motor (operating as driving means) with axle-operated driving means or manually-operated driving means.
ELECTRIC MOTORS NOT USED TO CONVERT ELECTRICAL ENERGY TO MECHANICAL ENERGY
Electric machines although designated as "electric motors" but which are so connected and used to function as means not for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy but for some other purpose, are not classified herein. Electric motors to be classifiable herein must be connected or controlled so as to function as electric motors.
ELECTRIC MOTOR STRUCTURE
The structure of electric motors (as distinguished from the systems of supply and control) is excluded from this class. See References to Other Classes, below,
SYSTEMS GENERIC TO MOTORS OR GENERATORS
Where the system includes a dynamo-electric machine, and the machine is disclosed but not claimed as either an electric motor or an electric generator, the patent is excluded from this class. See References to Other Classes, below, for the appropriate class.
MOTOR SYSTEMS OTHER THAN ELECTRIC MOTOR SYSTEMS
See References to Other Classes, below, for a reference to a compilation of all types of motors.