Lines with other classes and within this class
A. MOLDING PROCESS AND APPARATUS CLASSES
1. Molds Without Structure.
A mold recited only by composition with no structure recited will go to the appropriate composition class. See References to Other Classes, below.
Patents wherein all the claims are limited to a mold mentioned by name only with no structure recited and defined only in terms of the composition of individual layers are classified in the appropriate composite layer class. (See References to Other Classes, below.)
Class 249 provides for molds of a static character for metal shaping. Generally any mold having a dynamic feature of the feature of the following list is included in this class (164):
(a) A mold combined with means or pressing molding material within the mold.
(b) A mold combined with a cover having projections penetrating into the fluent hardenable material upon movement of the cover to its operative position.
(c) A mold combined with means for moving the mold from one side to another.
(d) A mold formed of separable and unconnected parts combined with means to individually handle each part for assembly.
(e) A mold provided with a core or ejector combined with a machine-type means for actuating the core or ejector.
(f) A mold combined with means to position the work relative to the mold and which means functions to release the work to permit it to fall in the mold.
(g) A mold or core combined with means for creating differential pressure within the mold or core for dynamically shaping a molding material.
(h) A mold combined with means for feeding material thereto, except that a mold with an integral funnel element or a mold so modified to provide structure especially designed for supporting a feeding means, is classified in Class 249.
(i) A mold and means to vibrate the mold.
(j) A segmented female mold or core, e.g., tunnel type, etc., and power means, i.e., motor to move the segments to inoperative or operative position.
(k) Continuous or semi-continuous forming apparatus.
Also, Class 249 provides for all static molds for metal shaping except for molds made of sand or a similar particulate material which is found in this class (164). See Subclass References to the Current Class, below, for a subclass reference for mold made of sand or a similar particulate material. A mold which by claim or disclosure can be either sand or metal will be found in Class 249. Combinations of sand and metal molds or cores are provided for in this class (164) as are sand (only) mold adjuncts (such as a metal chill).
Classes 264 and 425 provide for processes and apparatus respectively for metal shaping by liquid or melt comminuting. In this operation no mold is employed by the particles are shaped by the cohesive nature of the material, e.g., solidifying of a molten metal to a round ball while in free fall.
Molding processes and apparatus for metal powders are found in Class 419 (processes with sintering), Class 264 (compacting processes), and Class 425 (particle compositioning apparatus). In these powder metallurgical operations, the particles retain their identity as particles in the product. If they were completely fused, such operations would be provided for in this class (164).
Processes and apparatus for deforming metal are provided for elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)
Processes and apparatus for casting metal to form either single type or type-bars that are adapted to be set up as a printing form are provided for elsewhere. This class (164) provides for processes and apparatus for casting stereotype plates. (See References to Other Classes, below)
Processes of casting and molding material wherein a semiconductor junction device or material is produced by claim or disclosure are provided for elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below).
3. Nonmetallic Materials
Class 249, Static Molds, provides for static molds for the general process of molding nonmetallic materials of Class 264, Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes, while Class 425, provides for the dynamic molding apparatus. A claim or, if not claimed, a disclosure of molding either metals or nonmetals will be classified in the nonmetallic class. A combination of a nonmetallic operation followed by an operation of this class (164) will be found in this class (164). An operation of this class (164) followed by an operation of a nonmetallic shaping class will be found in the nonmetallic shaping class, i.e., Classes 264 and 425.
Class 65 provides generally for processes of molding glass. A patent disclosing working of named materials for this class (164) and Class 65 is classified in this class (164) unless the only species claimed is glass or the only specific example relates to glass in which case the patent is classified in Class 65. Combined processes including metal casting and glass working and/or treating are classified in this class (164).
B. COMPOSITION CLASSES
For placement of patents reciting a mold by name only see Molding Process and Apparatus Classes, Molds Without Structure, above.
Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, provides for a process of refining combined with a Class 164 process (significant or nominal). Class 420, Alloys or Metallic Compositions, provides for a process of alloying followed by casting where the alloying or refining step is either (1) prior to or (2) subsequent to the casting operation, i.e., removed from mold. This class (164) provides for apparatus for alloying or refining combined with casting apparatus where the alloying or refining is performed prior to or during casting. The term metal is utilized throughout the class to encompass free metal alloy or intermetallic compound as designated in Classes 75 and 420.
The order of superiority among various metal, alloy, and metal stock areas and methods of manufacture involving them is as follows:
1. Class 419, Powder Metallurgy Processes.
2. Class 148, Metal Treatment, subclasses 22+, compositions for treatment of solid metal.
3. Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, subclasses 300, 301, and 303+, gaseous, liquid, or solid treating compositions for liquid metal or charges, and subclass 302, welding rod defined by composition.
4. Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, subclasses 228+, consolidated metal powder compositions and subclasses 255+, loose metal particulate mixtures.
5. Class 420, Alloys or Metallic Compositions, claimed as products.
6. Class 148, Metal Treatment, subclasses 95-122, 194-287, and 500-714, in class schedule order, providing for certain processes of treating solid or semi-solid metal by modifying or maintaining internal physical structure (i.e., microstructure) or chemical properties of metal, processes of reactive coating of metal or processes of chemical-heat removing (e.g., flame-cutting, etc.) or burning of metal. However, if metal casting, fusion bonding, machining, or working is involved, there is a requirement of significant heat treatment as described in the Class 148 class definition.
7. Class 148, Metal Treatment, subclasses 33+ barrier layer stock material and subclasses 400+, stock.
8. Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, subclassses 331+, processes of making solid particulate alloys directly from liquid metal and subclasses 343+, processes of producing purifying alloys in powder form.
9. Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, subclasses 10.1+ and 10.67, processes of making alloys by electrothermic, electromagnetic, or electrostatic processes.
10. Class 420, Alloys or Metallic Compositions, processes of manufacture.
11. Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, subclasses 330+, processes of making metal and processes of treating liquid metals and liquid alloys and consolidating metalliferous material.
12. Class 204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, processes.
13. Class 164, Metal Founding, subclasses 1+, processes.
14. Class 266, Metallurgical Apparatus, subclasses 44+, processes of operating metallurgical apparatus.
This list is not complete and may be added to as the proper relationship of other areas is determined.
This class (164) provides for a process of shaping, per se, of a mold, pattern or core device which is to be utilized in a metal casting operation, where there are significant shaping steps recited. The line with the various chemical composition classes and this class (164) is the same generally as that set forth in Class 264, Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Chemical Composition Classes. Clarification as to some of the technology peculiar to this class and any departures from the line set forth in Class 264 will be set forth below.
These lines are generally applicable where there is a mixing or blending of the mold, pattern or core composition recited to take place prior to the mold-step or a chemical reaction during the molding step. Where there is no claimed disclosure as to a chemical reaction, mixing or blending the patent is classified in this class even when only nominal shaping is recited.
Unless otherwise provided for, the recitation in a claim of a significant molding or shaping step will bring a patent to this class. Significant molding operations include named shaping by compaction, centrifugal force, spraying or slinging material against a shaping surface, or extruding of mold materials to form a shaping surface, and combinations of two or more broad molding or shaping steps and other combinations as set forth in Class 264.
Patents reciting physical or mechanical treatment subsequent to a broad molding step, e.g., shaping or molding broadly plus cutting or removing of excess mold material or heating subsequent to removal of a shaped article from forming surface to complete the cure will be placed in this class. Mere stripping alone or nominal return to ambient temperature is not considered to be an after treatment or a subsequent treatment within the scope outlined above.
C. COMPOSITE ARTICLE FORMING CLASSES
The distinction between coating a metal onto a base for Class 118 or Class 427 and casting a metal onto the base for this class is predicated upon the presence of confining means for the molten metal as it solidifies on the base. If the melt is confined in all directions on the base against the force of gravity it is considered a process or apparatus appropriate for this class. The confining means may be structural dams, previously solidified casting material, or part of the base itself.
Also, if a metal layer is formed in a mold and another layer coated on the initial layer while it is still in a mold the operation is considered molding of plural layers for this class rather than coating since the operation takes place in a mold.
2. Fusion Bonding
This class (164) provides for a process and apparatus for joining two or more preforms or portions of the same preform, where (a) a removable mold member is used and (b) the molten metallic material is confined in all directions against the force of gravity (hole filling is considered a joining of portions). Fusion bonding therefor, not meeting the above limitation, is classified elsewhere. Processes and apparatus for bonding or welding by means of electric heating are also provided for elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)
Only a limited amount of cross-referencing and cross-noting has been done between process and apparatus subclasses where the subject matter provides for is of comparable scope. One is cautioned therefore, to utilize both the process and apparatus sections of the schedule when determining fields of search.